In last week’s letter I wrote about the hypodermic needle as my weekly invention. While writing the letter I thought of some shots I received while in the military and they used something else. It was A jet injector, also commonly referred to as an air gun, air jet injector, pneumatic injector, or jet gun injector, is a needle-free instrument that uses a high-pressure stream of liquid medicament to penetrate the skin and achieve a percutaneous administration of medicine or vaccine. The concept most resembles a powerful squirt gun penetrating through skin.
These jet injectors, known as high workload jet injectors, were designed for use in mass immunizations, in which a large population needed to be vaccinated at a rapid rate. The concept reduced the overuse and disposal of single-use syringes and needles, and prevented the accidental needle stick injuries to the immunizing staff.
After reading a bit about them, I noticed the military stopped their use in 1997. This was due to three major concerns.
Research conducted by Samir Mitragotri, a chemical engineer at the University of California, visually captured the discharge of multiple-use nozzle jet injectors using high-speed microcinematography. The photos in the following link demonstrate a close-up look at the jet injection process. Most importantly, notice in the images when the high velocity stream penetrates the skin there is extensive splash back.
Aaron Ismach, inventor of the most widely used jet injector, the Ped-O-Jet, found earlier devices sucked fluid directly upon the outside of the nozzle orifice back into internal fluid pathway and drug reservoir. This phenomenon allows foreign particles to contaminate the sterile vaccine. Ismach declared in his 1962 patent that his invention overcame this danger.
Kale and Momin (2014) found during Phase 2 of the injection process there would be a backwards flow where the jet spray would shoot back out of the hole towards the jet injector. This would be an expected phenomenon in every injection due to the continuous depletion of pressure where the volumetric rate of hole formation would eventually be less than the volumetric rate of the jet impinging the skin. This continuous decrease in pressure would create a retrograde, or backwards, flow, whereupon the jet injector's nozzle, internal fluid pathway and drug reservoir would become contaminated.
The military stopped the use of this device due to Veterans Administration claims of patients becoming infected with Hepatitis that could not be explained with another vector.
Due to health risks the gun injector’s use was totally stopped 12 years ago by all, as in some cases, the jet injectors could bring blood or other body fluids to the surface of the skin while the vaccine was being administered. Those fluids could contaminate the injector, creating the possibility that viruses could be transmitted to another person being vaccinated with the same device.
Once again on the road,
From Orlando we went north to the Florida town that is farthest to the west, so far west it is in the next time zone, which is central. With Patty retired we are both now on a fixed limited income so to save money we decided to stay in government quarters. Our first try is with the Navy and I must say it is very nice, both clean and comfortable. We are located on the Naval Air Station, of Pensacola, Florida (www.dodlodging.net) ; we reserved three days using the Navy Gateway, Inns and Suites. What is great about this base is the location is right on Pensacola Bay so we have a beach. It is home to the Naval Air Museum, and a lighthouse. Another great thing is the Navy’s Blue Angels practice here probably twice a week. I will need to take a few pictures and Patty wants to get some autographs for the grand kids.
Last night we went into the city of Pensacola to eat at one of America’s great steakhouses, McGuire’s Irish Pub. Many of my friends would like this place as many drinks are in the $3 to $4 range. The walls were covered with money; my estimate is over 1 million, every square inch of the ceiling and walls down to about 3 feet. The money is not flat on a flat surface but hung perpendicular. There is so much money that sound does not carry and the Irish music is muted. They make all their beer and I had a red lager named, McGuire’s Irish Red. Patty drank something called an Emory Chenoweth, not sure what it contains but probably 10 inches high and only $3.50. My taste of it was delicious. There was a drink with a limit of 3 per person, served in an old fashion quart size Mason jar from the local cemetery, called “The Irish Wake” at a cost of $9.99. The seating capacity of this place was very close to 800 or 900 people. The parking lot was perhaps five acres. Many pictures of famous people are on the walls, more than one can imagine.
Day two: We went to the Naval Air Museum. It is huge and extensive, over 150,000 square feet and four stories high. One day is not enough, as there is so much history from WW1, through today. If I was going to say which is bigger the USAF or the USN, I would go to the USAF at Wright Patterson AFB. Pensacola trains most of the Naval Aviators if not all, some became very famous and some were our past presidents. Their planes and log books will be enshrined here forever.
There is a lighthouse on the base which posed nicely for some pictures. You can look up http://www.pensacolalighthouse.org/ there is also a museum attached. This is still a working lighthouse kept up by the Coast Guard.
The last day was a visit to a fort. It was Fort Pickens National Park. From the fort we watched the Blue Angels practice maneuvers, our very own private air show. There were six planes and they kept passing over and around the fort then back to the base and up into the sky. A great day especially after we left the fort for a nearby beach that gets 4.9 stars out of five. It was not crowded at all and many have said it is the best beach in the Eastern United States, Langdon Beach. If I return to Pensacola, I would stay at the Naval Lodge as it is closer to the museum and lighthouse with its own private beach. The beach used by the Inn I was in although also on base but perhaps two miles away, without the seclusion afforded by the lodge.
The next day we are off to stay on Joint Base Charleston, currently commanded by the A.F... We are staying at an Air Force Inn once again; it will be the least expensive nights of our trip. Unlike the old days when there were many clubs, the military has sort of made drinking out of vogue. Only one club on base now and this one had Bingo on the evening we arrived, however our arrival was an hour late to catch the entire evening’s game. There were two guaranteed $1,000 prizes included this evening along with all their normal prizes. We just ate in the Grill portion of the club, ran to the commissary and then back to our room. If anything was funny, we saw many open parking spaces in front of the club. Only trouble was the first 2 were for General Officers, the next 4 were for Colonels, then a few for Commanders of local units and the club manager. There was a group set aside for the E-9 enlisted also. I parked in the back.
We made our reservation again by using www.dodlodging.net for those active or retired military members with proper identification. I tried to read the regulation (AFI 37-135 24 September 2014) to see if DoD Civilian guests are authorized, as in the past I have stayed with DoD Civilians with Temporary Duty Orders while we were having required environmental training and could not decipher the policy. There are so many exceptions and rules I feel DoD Civilians with DoD ID cards might be eligible.
I did notice that rule 39 includes: Other DoD ID card holders not on official business to include disabled veterans.
It almost looks like many people are authorized so probably the best thing is just check and confirm eligibility.
Ok, off to Fort Sumter, the place where the American Civil War Began. Decades of growing strife between north and south erupted in civil war on April 12, 1861, when confederate artillery opened fire on this Federal fort in Charleston Harbor. Fort Sumter surrendered 34 hours later. Union forces would try for nearly four years to take it back. You can’t drive to it so we took a ferry. The place where the ferry started there were two naval ships the USS Yorktown (CV/CVA/CVS-10) is one of 24 Essex-class aircraft carriers built during World War II for the United States Navy. She is named after the Battle of Yorktown of the American Revolutionary War, and is the fourth U.S. Navy ship to bear the name. I did not catch the name of the destroyer.
This is a National Park so once again I got to use my park pass. If you are 62 or over you should spend the $10 for one of the passes. Once you pay the fee all National Parks are free for life, this includes the National Seashore on the Cape. I have got my $10 back many times over already and I bought it 3 or 4 years ago.
This is also the area my father went to college, he attended the U.S. military Academy called, “The Citadel.” His study was chemical engineering. This was also the start to get his commission and join the army’s, 101st Screaming Eagles and become a paratrooper during WWII. I did not have time to visit the Citadel museum so I might have to return on another trip.
I am not sure if I can call these vacations anymore. Where we are retired now I would say they are just trips, excursions or adventures.
have some favorite sea animals, the best being the leatherback sea turtle. Its primary food source is jellyfish which by the way are my least favorite. I dislike them more than sharks as I must say other than what I hear about sharks they truly have not impacted my life as much as those slimy jellyfish. The jellyfish have closed beaches, I guess so have sharks. I have been stung by a jellyfish but never received a shark bite.
The world’s ecosystem is one of need for food. In college they used an island as the example. If the grass was plentiful, the mice that ate the grass became plentiful. Then the foxes that ate the mice in turn grew plentiful. It is true there could be a perfect balance as long as there wasn’t a big change in the numbers of mice or fox. But the entire process is more like a wave. Grass grows, mice population grows, fox population grows then the mice population decreases, also due to lack of food the fox population decreases etc. Pretty much the one thing that stays constant is change.
If there were only grass and mice it would be a little different. Grass grows, the mice population grows, they eat too much grass so its area decreases and in turn the mice population decreases. This process is just easy peasy to understand and probably why it is the example in college
This state protects eel grass; small sticky jellyfish like eel grass so now we are getting an abundance of those small dime sized jellyfish. They are an annoyance but you can just wipe them off. However they have joined forces with another type of jellyfish and now are getting stingers. To some people this can be dangerous at least they currently are located pretty much only in the Waquoit bay area.
The other day when I spouted off about the increase in grey seal population bringing in a host of predators to the Cape’s waters it is the same principal.
Now we have two whale species that are rare to our waters although not unheard of but unusual as they rarely visit. It is the bowhead whale and sei whales swimming along with our local North Atlantic right whales. They were all seen feeding side by side.
The number of sei whales in Cape Cod Bay was 40. When mature they are the third biggest whale in the world. On this day 40 percent of all the right whales left in the world were in Cape Cod Bay or 217.
Again the available food in Cape Cod Bay of zooplankton is at an all-time high. The normal population is about 5,000 organisms per cubic meter of seawater. This year the count is from 40,000 to 77,000 per cubic meter.
“The food resource is the thickest we have seen in 32 years,” Charles “Stormy” Mayo, head of the right whale ecology program at the Center for Coastal Studies, said of the zooplankton that whales consume.
Have you ever wondered what the caloric intake of a right whale is? North Atlantic right whales need a lot of food each day — the caloric equivalent of 3,000 Big Macs — and right now there’s plenty of it in Cape Cod Bay, in the form of a tiny crustacean.
During their feeding cycle they eat about 4% of their weight daily. It is probably a good thing this as feeding only lasts for about 120 days a year. Most baleen whales spend about four to six months in the summer feeding intensively in high-latitude, productive waters. They spend the next six to eight months traveling and breeding.
Whales gain about 16% to 30% of their total body weight during a feeding season.
Throughout the traveling and breeding season, baleen whales eat much less or not at all. Blubber gained during the feeding season sustains the whale during the winter months. A baleen whale's thick blubber layer stores fat; it is an energy reserve that is necessary during the traveling and breeding seasons. Blubber makes up 27% of a blue whale's body weight, 23% of a fin whale, 21% of a sei whale, 29% of a gray whale, and 36% to 45% of a right whale.
In the Sunday Cape Cod Times it was reported they found a dead minke whale on a Harwich beach. Harwich is on the Nantucket Sound side of the Cape. It is in those waters where the seals and sharks primarily hunt. It was small, and the paper said it was only 13 feet long. It looks like the International Fund for Animal Welfare will perform a necropsy to find the cause of death.
The size is probably correct as the minke is the second smallest of the baleen type whales. The smallest being the pigmy right whale. The largest a minke will grow for the female at 26 feet and the male at 23 feet.
To me this dead whale’s size is slightly more than the birth size as when born they are from 8 to 9 feet long. However the world population for this type of whale is in excess of 500,000. This species is considered as in the “Not at risk category.”
Many of my friends know I was once a Democrat who was a McGovern supporter. While I was stationed in Texas I shook McGovern’s hand by the Alamo, in San Antonio , during a rally. This particular political party left me behind many years ago.
Great Orators of the Democrat Party – PAST:
"One man with courage makes a majority." ~ Andrew Jackson
"The only thing we have to fear is fear itself." ~ Franklin D. Roosevelt
"The buck stops here." ~ Harry S. Truman
"Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for country." ~ John F. Kennedy
Great Orators of the Democratic Party today:
"It depends what your definition of 'is' is?'' President William Jefferson Clinton
"Those rumors are false. I believe in the sanctity of marriage." ~ John Edwards
"What difference does it make?" (Re: Benghazi) ~ Hillary Clinton
"I invented the Internet." ~ Al Gore (he did however vote to provide tax payer money for it’s startup)
"America is, is no longer, uh, what it, uh, could be, uh, what it was once was, uh, and I say to myself, uh, I don't want that future, uh, for my children." ~ Barack Obama
"I have campaigned in all 57 states." ~ Barack Obama (Quoted 2008)
"You don't need God anymore; you have us Democrats." ~ Nancy Pelosi (Quoted 2006) (A really, really stupid remark.)
"Paying taxes is voluntary." ~ Sen. Harry Reid
"Bill is the greatest husband and father I know. No one is more faithful, true, and honest than he is." ~ Hillary Rodham Clinton (Quoted1998)
"You have a business. You didn't build that. Someone else did!" ~ Barack Obama (Quoted 2012)
And the most ridiculous gem of wisdom, from the "Mother Superior Moron": "We just have to pass the Healthcare Bill to see what's in it." ~ Nancy Pelosi (Quoted March, 2010)
(As one Doctor said: “That is also the perfect definition of a stool sample.”)
A Great Republican: "Life is tough! It's even tougher when you are stupid.'' ~ John Wayne
Now I am on the Delmarva Peninsula and staying with a Navy Inn again. The internet and password are the same so my computer is happy. We drove all day (8 hours), had breakfast when we left but decided to have a nice dinner after we checked into Wallops Island, home of Surface Combat System Center (SCSC). It is located on a 6 square mile island with NASA. There are so few people around it is weird. The gate guard would open the gate electronically from his guard shack to let us in and out. The gate was roughly a 10 foot high fence on rollers. On my arrival there were about 8 men cooking on a bar-b-cue grill before they disappeared. This was the most people I saw during my entire stay. No base exchange, no club, no gas station, no commissary, just 3 or 4 buildings, a parking lot and a guard shack. The big building being what looked like a school for Navy training of Combat Systems. The gate guard could jog around all the buildings in probably 5 minutes.
One funny thing, other than the ghost base item above. A room is $70 and a suite is $70. I took the suite, being the bargain hunter, penny pincher that I am. All suites are on the second floor and all rooms on first floor. The furniture in the rooms was sort of early Virginian, which was ornately carved cherry wood, no fiber board here, not even plywood. Much better furniture than I have in my own house and those of the people I know. The bed was a sleigh bed also cherry and carved. I counted the drawers in the room in the 4 rooms of the suite, there were 21. I was only sleeping there for two nights, our arrival and the one night after our day of exploring, so I did not unpack my suitcase as we would be leaving in the morning. Not using all these drawers made me feel guilty so I put my glasses and wallet in one just before I went to sleep. The Air Force would say we would be leaving at zero dark thirty. There were probably only 4 or 5 other people and/or couples staying at the Inn but I did not see any of them, just their vehicles.
We had dinner at Ray’s Shanty on Chincoteague Road. If you drive the coast heading south after using the Cape May ferry this restaurant would be well worth the stop. https://www.raysshanty.com/ I had ½ pound of steamed shrimp from North Carolina; it came with fries, slaw, and hush puppies. This meal was incredible and only $17.95. Patty had 2 crab cakes made in the facility with the same sides that I had for $21.95. Just an FYI my shrimp size was XL, probably 16 – 20 per pound. Another thing I noticed was this place also sells fresh seafood; the sign said uncooked North Carolina shrimp the size I just ate, goes for $35 for 10 pounds (head and shell on). In New England we pay way too much for seafood and it is not as fresh. Patty and I were taken on a tour of the restaurant/facility while waiting for our table by the owner’s wife,. The owner, her husband, Captain Ray Twiford we met on our way out of the restaurant.
Adjacent to this base is a NASA installation that commands the oldest rocket launch range in the U.S. This might be interesting as they do offer tours, but we are visiting Chincoteague National Park tomorrow to visit and photograph the wild horses on nearby islands.
We did get to go to the NASA museum on our way back from Chincoteague. I was becoming paranoid with all of the “Restricted Area,” signs on this base, plus those of the NASA and was wondering what they were hiding. There were probably nine parabolic dishes pointed toward the sky, some at least five stories high. More rockets are shot from this base then Cape Canaveral, Kennedy’s Space Station, approximately 30 per year. The next one is May 31. If you are an engineer in the field this would be the place to be. https://www.nasa.gov/centers/wallops/home . Why might you ask, great food, low cost homes, incredible ocean views and parks and beaches everywhere.
I have always thought that buying a home on the Delaware portion of this three state peninsula as the state of DE has the 46th lowest tax rate of the lower 48 states. I guess taxes are most important to me anyway.
I did learn that the next full solar eclipse of the sun will be on August 21, 2017. A total solar eclipse will take place on Monday, August 21, 2017. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. Let us hope for good weather and no clouds as this phenomenon does not happen very often.
About four years ago I started using something called Soap Berries. I am just reporting in that I have stopped using them. I found that the clothes started to smell musty. I have since gone back to Tide. Other people I know still use them.
Here is an excerpt from a 2013 letter: This is a bit on soap berries mentioned in last week's letter. If interested just Google these things: the tree that grows them is Sapindus Mukorossi . It comes from a tropical/sub-tropical area of the world and mostly used in India and China. If you live in Florida/California you can possibly grow the tree. You only use the shell that surrounds the seed to wash with. I have found some interesting things while reading about them. They can be used to make your own shampoo or pet shampoo or soap. They can be used to spray on veggies as an insect deterrent. When you finish doing 5-8 loads you can compost the small husks into your garden. Front loaders like them as they do not make high suds. You will no longer need softener for your clothes. I just wonder why they have not been around earlier as soap is expensive.
I now know that we Americans as a population like people and clothes that have an attractive scent. It is how we choose our soaps, shampoo, and many other personal products. However these berries are still sold on Amazon and I noticed that many sources are now made in the USA. I personally do not think I will try them again but feel it is a good idea and if you want a product that is natural try it. Maybe if a natural scent could be added I might try them again.
Having returned to my home once again I can return to my writing about inventions that changed mankind. This week we will talk about the Stethoscope.
Many people have heard their stomach growling or listened to their heartbeat in the middle of the night. But few know that inside the human body is a cacophony of sounds– from the gurgle of the intestines to the whisper of the lungs to the rush of the arteries and low rumble of other organs. Doctors can draw conclusions about patient’s health depending upon the sounds they hear through a stethoscope. The word “stethoscope” comes from the Greek words stehos, meaning “chest,” and skopein, meaning “to explore.”
Modern stethoscopes feature a round chest piece containing a hollow cup (bell) with a plastic disk, or diaphragm, inside it. When the piece is placed on the patient’s chest, body sounds vibrate the diaphragm, creating sound waves that travel up hollow rubber tubes to the listener’s ears. The bell transmits low-frequency sounds, while the diaphragm transmits higher-frequency sounds.
Rene Laennec invented the stethoscope in France in 1816. Reportedly, while walking in Paris, Laennec saw two children sending signals to each other using a long piece of solid wood and a pin. With an ear to one end, the child received an amplified sound of the pin scratching the opposite end of the stick. After much experimentation, Laennec came up with the first stethoscope. It consisted of a wooden tube and was connected to one ear only. The tool was very similar to the ear trumpet, a device used by the hard-of-hearing to listen to conversations.
Flexible-tube stethoscopes for one ear arrived in 1840. They were called ”snake ear trumpets.” In 1851 Irish physician Arthur Leared invented a binaural (two-eared) stethoscope which greatly improved the ability of a doctor to hear internal bodily sounds.
Today, physicians use many types of stethoscopes. The acoustic stethoscope is the most familiar, but there are also electronic stethoscopes (stethophones) that electronically amplify body sounds. They use a PC-based software that converts the sound into visual graphs that can be transmitted for remote diagnosis.
The invention of the stethoscope marked a major step in the redefinition of disease. Formerly identified as a bundle of symptoms, disease in the current sense is considered a bodily problem even if there are no noticeable symptoms. Using a stethoscope, a doctor can quickly tell the health of the lungs, heart, stomach, and intestines even if the patient notices no pain.
Here is another summer crockpot recipe. . .
Roasted Summer Squash with Pine Nuts and Romano Cheese
2 tablespoons olive oil
½ cup chopped yellow onion
1 medium red bell pepper chopped
1 clove garlic, minced
3 medium zucchini, cut into ½ -inch slices
3 medium summer squash, cut into ½ -inch slices
½ cup chopped pine nuts
1/3 cup grated Romano cheese
1 teaspoon Italian seasoning
1 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon black pepper
1 tablespoon unsalted butter, cubed
Springs of fresh basil (optional
1. Heat oil in large skillet over medium-high heat. Add onion, bell pepper and garlic; cook and stir 10 minutes or until onion is translucent and soft. Remove to Crockpot slow cooker. Add zucchini and summer squash; toss lightly.
I hate it when people forward bogus warnings, and I have even done it myself a couple times unintentionally... but this one is real, and it's important. So please send this warning to everyone on your e- mail list.
If someone comes to your front door saying they are checking for ticks due to the warm weather and asks you to take your clothes off and dance around with your arms up
DO NOT DO IT!! THIS IS A SCAM!!
They only want to see you in your birthday suit.
I wish I'd gotten this yesterday. I feel so stupid.
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Billy Graham was returning to Charlotte after a speaking engagement and when his plane arrived there was a limousine there to transport him to his home.
As he prepared to get into the limo, he stopped and spoke to the driver.
"You know" he said, "I am 87 years old and I have never driven a limousine. Would you mind if I drove it for a while?"
The driver said, "No problem. Have at it."
Billy gets into the driver's seat and they head off down the highway.
A short distance away sat a rookie State Trooper operating his first speed trap.
The long black limo went by him doing 70 in a 55 mph zone.
The trooper pulled out and easily caught the limo and he got out of his patrol car to begin the procedure.
The young trooper walked up to the driver's door and when the glass was rolled down, he was surprised to see who was driving. He immediately excused himself and went back to his car and called his supervisor.
He told the supervisor, "I know we are supposed to enforce the law...But I also know that important people are given certain courtesies. I need to know what I should do because I have stopped a very important person."
The supervisor asked, "Is it the Governor?"
The young trooper said, "No, he's more important than that."
The supervisor said, "Oh, so it's the President."
The young trooper said, "No, he's even more important than that."
The supervisor finally asked, "Well then, who is it?"
The young trooper said, "I think it's Jesus, because he's got Billy Graham for a chauffeur!"
Two nuns were shopping in a food store and happened to be passing the beer and liquor section.
One nun asks the other if she would like a beer.
The other nun answered that would be good, but that she would be queasy about purchasing it.
The first nun said that she would handle it and picked up a six pack and took it to the cashier.
The cashier had a surprised look and the first nun said, "This is for washing our hair."
The cashier without blinking an eye, reached under the counter and put a package of pretzel sticks in the bag with the beer saying, "Here, don't forget the curlers."